SEC’s breach disclosure rule raises concerns about tipping off hackers to flawed systems

New rules require publicly traded companies to disclose cybersecurity breaches within four days of them being deemed material.
Securities and Exchange Commission Chair Gary Gensler testifies before the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee, on Capitol Hill, September 15, 2022 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Kevin Dietsch/Getty Images)

The Securities and Exchange Commission approved rules on Wednesday that will require publicly traded companies to disclose cybersecurity breaches that pose a material risk to a firm’s bottom line. 

While many companies already disclose breaches, the SEC’s new rules aim to bring greater transparency and consistency to the information available to investors. “Whether a company loses a factory in a fire — or millions of files in a cybersecurity incident — it may be material to investors,” SEC Chair Gary Gensler said in a statement.

The rules, which are set take effect 30 days after they are published in the Federal Register, require companies to disclose breaches four days after they are deemed material. The disclosure regime represents a potentially major shift in how public companies disclose computer breaches.

Security and legal experts caution that determining what types of breaches are material and require reporting may pose a challenge for some firms and that rushing to alert investors about breaches before they are remedied could put companies at risk.


The public nature of the disclosure and tight timeline is what could expose companies to additional risk, said Harley Geiger, a counsel at the Center for Cybersecurity Policy and Law. While Geiger welcomed regulators’ growing emphasis on disclosure, he said that Wednesday’s rule may have unintended consequences.

Companies are already subject to a patchwork of disclosure requirements, but the SEC’s new rule differs in one marked respect: Breach disclosures will be public in the 8-K forms filed with the commission and made available to investors. 

Within four days of determining that a breach is material, “the company may or may not have expelled the attacker and patched the vulnerability or the vector that caused the incident in the first place,” Geiger said. Disclosure of a breach may tip off other attackers to a vulnerable system, and if an attacker remains in an affected system, they may attempt to grab whatever data is available to them or burn down any infrastructure they have access to, he added.

Publicly traded companies are already required to reveal information deemed material to investors, but Wednesday’s rule shortens the timeline for when companies must disclose breaches deemed material and also requires that they provide an annual report on their cybersecurity risk management strategy. 

The rules adopted Wednesday include the possibility of extending the timeline of disclosure if the U.S. attorney general determines that disclosure poses a risk to national security or public safety, but during the comment period, U.S. business interests pushed for far greater leniency in the disclosure timeline. 


Cybersecurity experts caution that Wednesday’s rules will require firms to overhaul how they think about breaches and that they may be poorly prepared to determine what needs to be disclosed to investors.

“Businesses will have to translate bits and bytes of cyber risk into dollars and cents of ‘material’ business risk,” said Saket Modi, the CEO of Safe Security. “Most organizations are not prepared to comply with the SEC guidelines as they cannot determine materiality.” 

Elias Groll

Written by Elias Groll

Elias Groll is a senior editor at CyberScoop. He has previously worked as a reporter and editor at Foreign Policy, covering technology and national security, and at the Brookings Institution, where he was the managing editor of TechStream and worked as part of the AI and Emerging Technology Initiative. He is a graduate of Harvard University, where he was the managing editor of The Harvard Crimson.

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